The main inhabitant of the District is Wancho whose social life is governed by the traditional chieftainship system. The Chief is called Wangham who is assisted by the Councils of elders Known as Wangsu and Wangsa. Tattooing was very important features in their society but it is no longer practised by the present generation.

The Wancho tribe has its own trend of traditional religious beliefs and practices which generally worship the Mother Nature for its munificence of food and well being of men and its livelihood. Apart from traditional belief, large portion of population also practise Christianity. The main festival celebrated by the tribe is Oriah which falls in February month of every year.

The Wancho tribe are mainly farmers who depend on Shifting (Jhum) Cultivation and grow Paddy, Millet, Maize, arum (Kachu), Tapioca, pulses etc as their main crops. Some patches of land are also devoted for Wet Rice cultivation/terrace Farming in available plain areas in river valleys and some adjacent parts of Assam but their production is even not sufficient for the subsistence of the people hence they mainly depend on PDS supply.

Horticulture gardens are also available in small numbers for local consumption. Tea gardens provide a large numbers of employments to women in particular. A tea factory is also established at Kanubari subdivision which is run by local businessman. The tribe of the District are good craftsmen and weavers. The wooden curved statue of Wancho is very popular and highly demanded in the market. Some factions of the people are also engaged in central and state government jobs, Business and other tertiary activities.